Halos at peak solar elevation, June 28th, 2014, Hörlitz, Germany
Chasing the circumhorizontal arc (CHA) has become a quite popular activity among the German halo observers. Depending on the latitude, there is only a 1-2 h time slot at noon for a few weeks around the summer solstice. Even the highest elevation the sun can reach is still a few degrees lower than the optimal value for CHA formation. This might only be beaten by the moon in a suitable position with respect to the ecliptic.
I was keen on observing the CHA this year as well, and had not had any luck so far. On Saturday, June 28th, there had been a single 22° ring before noon at my home in Hörlitz (51° 32’ N, 13° 57’ E). At 12:45 CEST I got on my bicycle for a visit in the neighbouring village. Already after 500 m I had to stop: The 22° ring intensified, and although there was still nothing else visible with the naked eye, I decided to take a fisheye picture at 12:51 for a later analysis. As seen in the unsharp masked version, the complete circumscribed halo and parhelic circle were already accompanying the 22° halo. With an ordinary wide-angle lens I took a “blindfold” picture deep in the south a minute later, and after unsharp masking both the CHA and the infralateral arc could be distinguished.
Of course this was unknown to me during the observation, but I felt some kind of suspicion that there might be more in the sky than I just saw (even by looking through a grey filter or using a black watch glass mirror). Around 12.53 I noticed the parhelic circle high in the sky, which had a diameter only slightly larger that of the 22° ring (~29°). Within the next few minutes the circumscribed halo became bright enough to appear clearly separated from the 22° ring at the sides. There were no traces of plate halos such as the 120° parhelia which I took as a bad sign for the CHA. There were now also cumulus clouds gathering in the south.
I moved on a bit, but stopped again after a 1 km: The sight of this huge “wedding ring”-like pattern in the sky was just too fascinating. I also scrutinized the south from time to time: Wasn’t there any colourful band appearing in the gaps between the Cu clouds? From time to time I thought that that I could see a part of the CHA, and the photos later proved that it was actually there, but I was not sure if I were just imagining something after staring too long into the sky. Consequently, I do not count this as a successful visual CHA observation. After reaching my destination at about 13.25, the Cu clouds were obstructing larger and larger parts of the sky as the halos were fading away in the gaps. I really had the luck to observe a parhelic circle at almost the highest possible solar elevation at my place (61.7° at 13.07)! Only 0.2° were missing to the ultimate maximum a week before the observation.
When going through the pictures again, I also found the upper part of the Parry arc in the filtered versions. Remarkably, the part below the parhelic circle is missing, and I do not have an explanation for this at hand at the moment. Nonetheless, the presence of the Parry arc allows to discard plates at all: The CHA may as well be generated by Parry crystals, as seen in this HaloSim simulation. However, when the portion of Parry crystals is increased to the point at which the CHA is rendered at a reasonable intensity, the Parry arc appears too bright.
A representative selection of images from this observation is available here.